Tag Archives: religious studies

Says Nanak

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“Sikhs and Sikh studies professors share a common goal. Most agree that Sikhi is a major world religion and Sikhi should be part of the curriculum of comparative religion – elementary through graduate schools – in the West and worldwide.”

SAYS NANAK:
In Search of a New Understanding of Sikhs’ Responses to Academic Research

Kamalla Rose Kaur

You may read and read loads of books;
You may read and study vast multitudes of books.
You may read and read boat-loads of books;
You may read and read and fill pits with them.
You may read them year after year;
You may read them as many months are there are.
You may read them all your life;
You may read them with every breath.
O Nanak, only One thing is of any account:
Everything else is just useless babbling and idle talk in ego.
(Guru Nanak “Asa Di Vaar”, Guru Granth Sahib, 467)  1

Many Sikhs treat Sikh studies academics with open hostility, protesting with signs, writing copious articles, denouncing Sikh scholars across internet websites and forums, petitioning universities to fire Sikh studies professors, waging email attacks, calling them before high councils, and death threats have been reported. W. H. McLeod, emeritus professor at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, warns scholars, “it must not be thought that the religious wars of such periods as the Reformation are behind us” (McLeod, “Discord in the Sikh Panth” 389).

Writing for Sikh newspapers and magazines, while participating in discussions and debates on Sikh internet forums for close to a decade, I can attest to the fact that Sikhs are quick to fight when they feel called to defend their Guru/scripture. And they will also defend their Guruji’s absolute authority to define Sikhi and what it means to be a True Sikh. McLeod reports that the cry “the Granth is in danger” can ignite a “whole-heartedly” popular cause which “ordinary members of the Panth” (ordinary members of the community) can “easily approve and support” (387). Ready to manipulate simple Sikh’s devotion for their Guruji/scripture, certain Sikhs and Sikh sects are attacking specific scholars (McLeod, “Discord”). While this is true, what W. H. McLeod and other Sikh studies academics consistently overlook is that the Sikh Guru/scripture also commands Sikhs to fight Western dualistic reality.   2 Later in this discussion, the Guru Granth’s viewpoint on duality and non-duality will be further elaborated.

Non-Sikh scholars can and should simply present Sikh teachings and beliefs without believing or practicing them. But failing to mention that the Sikh Guru Granth insists that non-dualistic consciousness is the first step to solving every problem – personal, Sikh and global – misses the most basic and primal teaching of Sikhi. The first words of the Guru Granth remain Ek On Kaar – the Creator and the Creation are One.

Arguably no religion is more devoted to its scripture than Sikhi. All Sikhs revere the Guru Granth Sahib as their living and breathing guide and teacher. Many Sikhs bow and submit to no other authority. In a 1992 article, Verne Dusenbery, an anthropologist at Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota, notes that Sikhs take their scripture “to be their eternal Guru, the source of divine benefits and the central focus of Sikh worship” (386). Sikhs open the Guru Granth in the morning and put it to bed each night. It is kept wrapped in beautiful fabrics. Sikhs ask their Guruji questions and receive guidance from the Guru Granth Sahib each day. It is carried on the head, and placed on a throne/altar, and kept fanned. Sikhs keep feet bare and heads covered when around the Sikh Guru/scripture (N. Singh, 35).

“Sikhs seek its presence for all their rites and ceremonies” asserts Nikky Gurinder Kaur Singh (Chair of the Department of Religious Studies at Colby College in Maine, USA), yet she wonders that, “for whatever reasons then, be it their personal proclivities, religious ideologies, or academic methods, non-Sikh scholars have been unable to surrender themselves completely to ‘the special call’ of the Sikh text” (35). Non-Sikh scholars, particularly historians and anthropologists, often ignore scriptural studies simply because it is not their department. Yet considering the volume of attention given to the study of other scriptures, Dusenbery remarks, “it is surprising that so little attention has yet been paid to the main Sikh scripture…especially to its use in Sikh worship in India and in the diaspora” (386).

1. The Guru Granth Sahib can only fully be experienced and appreciated in Gurmukhi, the language of the Sikh Guru. All translations of the Sikh scripture are interpretations only. The Guru Granth interpretations offered here are my own, based on the Sant Singh Khalsa English translation.

2 Western dualism and the mind/body split can be traced to the Greeks, but it was René Descartes (1596-1650), French mathematician, philosopher, and physiologist, who best formulated the theory and announced, “I think therefore I am.”

Dr. Doris Jakobsh and Authority Within Sikhi

In her 2006 article, “Authority in the Virtual Sangat: Sikhism. Ritual and Identity in the Twenty-First Century”, Doris Jakobsh (Harvard trained religious studies professor at University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada) wonders where students wishing to learn about Sikhi should turn. Jakobsh explores who is an ‘authority’ on Sikhi. She artfully, quickly and accurately, maps the rough terrain of modern global Sikhi, pointing out its many places of tremendous confusion. For instance, Jakobsh briefly mentions the problems with the traditional seats of Sikh authority in India: “Sikhs in the Diaspora seem to view both the SGPC and the offices of jathedars with suspicion, given the scandals that have rocked both institutions in recent years.” Jakobsh adds, “in terms of logistics, the authority of the SGPC does not legally extend beyond Punjab.”

Jakobsh describes the generation gap, particularly among Sikhs in the west. Elderly Sikh men run most Gurdwaras and lawsuits flourish (25). Jakobsh discusses the dated ineffectiveness of the current edition of the Sikh Reht Maryada (SRM, the Sikh code of conduct). Though formulated in 1951, Jakobsh insists that the SRM is “based on the concerns and worldview of the 18th and 19th centuries” and that it fails to address modern issues, “particularly those outside of the Punjab”. Jakobsh further reports that “the Maryada is intricately intertwined with the needs and concerns of the British-inspired reform movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries” and thus “needs to be questioned with respect to its very presuppositions, at least in terms of today’s society.” (28).

Jakobsh particularly focuses in her article on the pros and cons of the vast global internet community known as the Sikh cyber-sangat. There are thousands of Sikh websites competing to teach True Sikhi to the English-speaking world. Obviously those with the best technicians and biggest budgets define Sikhi faster and slicker. Jakobsh observes that “it is on the WWW that questions of caste, gender, abortion, Sikh ritual identity, premarital sex, homosexuality, to name only a few, can be found almost on a daily basis. The anonymity of the Web is particularly conducive for stances taken on these often controversial issues.” (Jakobsh, 29).

As insightful and helpful as Jakobsh’s overview of these various authorities on Sikhi proves, when she considers the Guru Granth Sahib as the ultimate authority on Sikhs and Sikhi, she simply doesn’t see it: “Notwithstanding the spectacular beauty and timeless truths embodied within these hymns, it is nonetheless difficult to find specific answers to …very difficult questions.” (27).

Yet, mysteriously, many Sikhs insist that the Guru Granth is, in fact, the only authority they submit to, and no other. Sikhs seek and receive their marching orders (vak laina or hukam laina) every single day from the Guru Granth. Sikhs soldiers carry the Guru Granth into war so that they may ask questions and receive comfort and up-to-the-moment directions from their Guruji. Historically, crowds of Sikhs have presented a single question to the Sikh Guru Granth and they have, as one, agreed and acted on the Sikh Guru’s instructions regarding their query (P. Singh 271).

Jakobsh acknowledges that the writers of the Guru Granth were, “great poet-saints” who “criticized many of the evils in society” but she insists that “ they did it within the context of religious life…These poets were not attempting to reform the social order per se, but had as their focus devotional practices of the day.” (27).

Except that the Sikh Guru Granth teaches that the spiritual and the earthly are One and the same. There is no distinction between devotional practices and attempting to reform oppressive societies within Sikhi. Praying and singing and communion with the Sikh Guru/scripture, doing service, defending human rights, going to work, eating, grooming, paying your bills, fighting a battle, shopping, relaxing, are equal and harmonious daily Sikh devotional practices. Guidance from the Guru Granth is obtained by praying and opening the book at random (invoking synchronicity) to receive instructions. The Guru Granth Sahib advises some to slow down and some to speed up, some to go within and others to step out boldly this day.

Jakobsh also discusses “the great poet-saints” and the historic context of their lives and missions without acknowledging that Sikhs also experience their Guru’s Voice as timeless, and timely, profoundly relevant right now. Pashaura Singh (Chair of Sikh Studies, University of California at Riverside) notes that the Guru Granth is, “a living Guru who always speaks with truth and power on the subject at hand” (P. Singh, 275). The Sikh Guru’s concern with politics has not changed, nor have the core issues behind human politics changed. When asked about the bomb, the Guru Granth might easily speak of tyrants deploying drunk elephants as weapons of mass destruction. The political scenes the Guru Granth paints, easily and significantly remind today’s readers of modern world rulers and situations.

Jakobsh is not a Sikh nor is she required to be. Yet I suggest to all Sikh studies professors that it would prove polite, positive and politically effective to explain to each other and to  students that Sikhs claim that the dualisms between past and present, between the poet-sants who wrote the Guru Granth Sahib, and the active Voice of the living and opinionated Sikh Guruji, blur and merge for students of the Guru Granth. Dualisms between being warriors and being saints, between spiritual activities and practical ones, between mind and body, between Creator and the Creation, tend to evaporate upon engagement with the Sikh Guru – or so the Guru Granth preaches and Sikhs profess.

The Guru Granth Sahib’s Teachings on the Intellect and Intellectuals

While academics overlook the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Guru does not ignore them back. What follows is a brief summary of the Guru Granth Sahib’s teachings on the intellect and intellectuals. The Sikh Guruji speaks a great deal about the human mind and also about scholars and teachers. Using the online search engine of the Sant Singh Khalsa translation of the Guru Granth Sahib1, I discovered the word scholar is used 115 times in the text. Intellect appears 185 times. Cynics and cynicism are discussed 155 times, and words derived from the word ego appear 1078 times.

More copious yet are the Guru Granth’s references to gurmukhs and manmukhs, the two categories into which the Sikh Guru, with characteristic humor and droll irony, bifurcates humanity. Manmukhs are people who divide people, and everything else, into categories. Gurmukhs are people who don’t.

Gurmukhs maintain constant awareness that the Creator/Creation is One Being (EkOnKaar). Gurmukhs believe that the Beloved One is awake and living among us, and through us. Gurmukhs leave the planet a better place than they found it. Gurmukhs speak and act like the Sikh Guru/scripture:

Duality dwells in the consciousness of the people of the world.
Humans destroy by sexual obsessions, rage, violence and egotism.
Whom should I call the second, when there is only the One?
The One Immaculate Reality is pervading all.

(Pause and reflect on this)

Our dual-minded evil intellect speaks of a second.
Those who harbor duality come and go and die.
In the earth and in the sky, I do not see any second.
Among all the women and the men, the Light is shining.
In the lamps of the sun and the moon, I see Light.
Dwelling among all is my ever-youthful Beloved One.
Mercifully, Creator/Creation has tuned my consciousness to One.
Guruji has led me to understand the Infinity of One.
A Gurmukh experiences only the One.
Subduing duality, we come to realize the Word of the Shabad
(we experience the true teachings).
The Divine Command prevails throughout all worlds.
From the One, all have arisen.
(Guru Nanak, Guru Granth Sahib, 223)

Manmukhs, in comparison, are at best intelligent people who act out of egotism and promote dualism. Manmukhs navigate from selfish goals and self-centeredness; they leave the planet a worse place than they found it:

The manmukhs stand there and dry up;
They do not bear any fruit,
And they do not provide any shade.
Don’t even bother to sit near them-they have no home or village.
They are cut down and burnt each day;
They have neither the Shabad (the teachings)
Nor the Naam (non-dualistic consciousness)
(Guru Amar Das, Guru Granth Sahib, 66)

The Sikh Guru Granth teaches that manmukhs become gurmukhs by union, which involves experiencing the One Reality or life-itself, as the waheguru or Wondrous Teacher. While Sikhs believe that the Wondrous Teacher is a universal force within all and accessible to all, for them, the writings of the Guru Granth Sahib are considered the very voice of that Wondrous Teacher.

The Sikh Teacher also divides intellectual pursuits into these same two categories. We can use our intellect to experience and teach non-dualistic awareness, love, integrity, tolerance, and union, or we use our intellect for ego gratification, to impress, for status and career advancement, for money, glamour, for the sake of arguing and debating, or out of the very love of dualism:

The intellect is a bird;
Depending on its actions,
It is sometimes high,
And sometimes low.
Sometimes it is perched on the sandalwood tree,
And sometimes it is on the branch of the poisonous swallow-wort.
Sometimes, it soars through the heavens.
O Nanak, our Only Master leads us on,
According to the Hukam (command) of the Creator/Creation’s Way.
(Guru Nanak, Guru Granth Sahib, 147)

The Sikh Guru Granth instructs Sikhs to shun egotism and egotists, and to denounce cynics. Sikh egotists and cynics abound, of course, but it may be easier for Sikhs to protest against the perceived greater source of cynicism, that heartless battlefield of brains, Western academia:

Turn away, O my mind, turn away.
Turn away from the cynic.
False is the love of the false.
Break the ties, O my mind, so your bondage shall be broken.
Break your ties with cynics.

(Pause and reflect)

One who enters a house filled with soot is blackened.
Run far away from such people!
When they meet the Guru
They escape the bondage of the three dispositions. 3
(Guru Arjan, Guru Granth Sahib, 535)

 3. Bondage of the three dispositions or “gunas” - tamas, rajas, sattwa.
Refers to the tendency to. 1. be lazy, 2. be constantly busy, and/or
3. the need to be high.



Making Peace

Sikhs and Sikh studies professors share a common goal. Most agree that Sikhi is a major world religion and Sikhi should be part of the curriculum of comparative religion – elementary through graduate schools – in the West and worldwide. Humans prosper and flourish through education and world citizens should understand the basic principles and teachings of Buddhism, Judaism, Humanism, Christianity, Hinduism, Secular Materialism, Shamanism, Islam, and Sikhi too.

Yet Sikhs do not want Sikh studies professors defining Sikhi and/or directly impacting Sikh politics, history and autonomy. And Sikhs studies professors do not wish to experience hate campaigns directed at them. And no one likes the Western media coverage of these unholy wars except, presumably, the Sikhs and Sikh sects who send out the press releases.

Joseph T. O’Connell (a professor of Religious studies at St. Michael’s College, University of Toronto) assures Sikhs that modern university study of Sikh religion is not a Christian missionary scheme “to undermine the faith of Sikhs” nor are Western universities “in collusion” with the Government of India to suppress Sikhs.

The thrust of such a campaign of misinformation is to encourage a climate of paranoia which tends to alienate Sikhs from the academic community.”(O’Connell, 274-75)

Mistrust of Western colonial mentality and strong resistance to having Oxford Press, or other powerful outsiders, take the role of authority on Sikhi are other concerns that Sikhs express. Thus Sikhs protest Sikh studies, and Sikhs also endow Sikh studies. Sikh studies programs need to attract students and Sikh funding. How to proceed?

Again I advise Sikh studies professors to start afresh by simply reporting and exploring how Sikhs take all questions to the Guru Granth Sahib. For instance, I asked the Sikh Guruji about how peace can be established between Western academics and Sikhs, and received this gem of a message about letting the jewel of the Sikh Guru’s teachings shine:

That which was upside-down has been set upright;
The deadly enemies and adversaries have become friends.
In the darkness, the jewel shines forth,
The impure understanding has become pure.
(Guru Arjan, Guru Granth, 402)

Dusenbery also suggests that, in the pursuit of Sikh studies, “it seems clear that one must recognize some strongly nondualistic aspects of Sikh social thought and ritual practice, especially in relation to the perceived power of the Word.” (390). Dusenbery argues that dualism of language is so entrenched in the West, that it is “commonsensical for Westerners as to make a nondualistic alternative seem like hocus-pocus.” (402). He implies that Western scholars have failed to acknowledge and discuss the importance of non-dualism within Sikhi because they can’t compute it, and/or they can’t believe it, but not because they hate Sikhs and Sikhism, like many Sikhs too quickly assume. Dusenbery advises that Sikh studies academics need to expand their analytic vocabulary “to overcome our conceptual dualisms…challenge analytic approaches growing out of the dominant Western ideology of language.” (389).

Of course, many academics may not agree with the Sikh Guru’s teachings. Sikhs can and do accept, understand, and tolerate diverse viewpoints. Also, quite reasonably, Sikh studies scholars may feel it is enough to simply observe and report that Sikhs find the ultimate authority for their religious beliefs “by turning to the Guru Granth Sahib and accepting it alone as supreme and absolute authority.” (McLeod, Sikhism, 266). McLeod also notes that non-Sikhs “may question its sufficiency” but he pushes that it must be “acknowledged that Sikhs have a better record of harmony and accord than other religious systems claim.” This is correct, and also honest, sincere and high praise.

Yet by refusing to accept the Guru Granth Sahib’s authority, or consider the Sikh Guru’s perceived “aliveness” enough to discuss Sikh teachings about dualism, the mind, human intellect, pundits and scholars, Sikh studies professors – no matter how well-educated they may be by Western standards – can expect to continue to appear ignorant, cowardly, lacking in honor, or just plain wrong, to many Sikhs.

McLeod writes that “by maintaining their trust in their Guru, which is the
Granth, the Sikh people uphold a belief that stands them in abundantly good stead.” (266). Sikhs agree, of course. The Sikh Guru Granth recommends that before we study anything, and certainly before we study Sikhi, that we all,
Sikhs and non-Sikhs, fanatic Sikhs and Sikh studies professors, pause and reflect and invoke Unity. Let us take a moment to question our motivations and agendas, lest we cause a war, or other unholy result.

Give up your pride and stubborn self-conceit;
death, yes, your death,
is always near at hand.
Resonate with the One.
Says Nanak, listen you fool:
without experiencing, and meditating, and dwelling on the One,
your life is uselessly wasting away.
(Guru Arjan, Guru Granth Sahib, 1308 )

Works Cited:

Dusenbery, Verne A. “The Word as Guru: Sikh Scripture and the Translation
Controversy”, History of Religions, 31.4, (May, 1992): 385-402

Jakobsh, Doris, “Authority in the Virtual Sangat: Sikhism. Ritual and
Identity in the Twenty-First Century” Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the
Internet 2.1 (2006) 24-40

McLeod, W. H. “Discord in the Sikh Panth “ Journal of the American Oriental
Society, 119. 3 (Jul. – Sep., 1999) 81-389

McLeod, W.H. Sikhism, Penguin Press, London (1997)

O’Connell, Joseph T. “The Fate of Sikh studies in North America,” The
Transmission of Sikh Heritage in the Diaspora, ed. Pashaura Singh and N. Gerald
Barrier (New Delhi: Manohar, 1996), 274-75.

Singh, Nikky-Guninder Kaur. “Translating Sikh scripture into English.” Sikh
Formations: 3.1: (June 2007) 33-49

Singh, Pashaura. The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority Oxford
University Press, 2000.

Sri Guru, Search Engine
_http://www.srigranth.org/servlet/gurbani.gurbani?S=y_
(http://www.srigranth.org/servlet/gurbani.gurbani?S=y)

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Filed under Kamalla Rose Kaur's Writings, Sikhi, THE VOICE OF THE SIKH GURU/SCRIPTURE

Authority in the Virtual Sangat by Dr. Doris Jakobsh

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Authority in the Virtual Sangat

Sikhism, Ritual and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

by Dr. Doris Jakobsh

In her paper Authority in the Virtual Sangat. Sikhism, Ritual and Identity in the Twenty-First Century, Doris Jakobsh analyses the change of authority based on her research on Sikhs on the Internet. She stresses the Web as a ‘third place’ of communication among the Sikhs as well as the phenomenon of new authorities online. However, this does not imply the replacement of the traditional seats of authority, the Akal Takht, SGPC, or gurdwara managements, but one can recognize a significant shift away from these traditional sites of authority toward the ‘new authorities’, the intermediaries of cyberspace. Her analysis shows that this aspect of the Sikh experience brings with it the most profound challenges and, most importantly, a need to bridge the post-modern individual, i.e. ‘Sikh tradition’ intertwined and legitimated by the metanarrative, and the proliferation of new authorities who have become intermediaries of Sikhism online by virtue of their expertise within the digital domain.

CLICK HERE FOR ARTICLE

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Religious Literacy and Stephen Prothero by P. Willow Cloin

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A university friend and I attended a lecture by Dr. Stephen Prothero recently, and she has kindly allowed me to publish the “extra credit essay” she wrote for her Religious Studies class below. Stephen Prothero is busy exposing how little USAers know about this world’s religions. He didn’t even mention Sikhi in his talk or on his quiz; which is not surprising because Sikhi has not been taught as a world religion in the West until very recently. Dr. Prothero asserts that even those students in his university classes who say they are Christian do not know the first thing about Christianity. Can you pass his religious literacy quiz?

TAKE THE RELIGIOUS LITERACY TEST HERE

Religious Literacy and Stephen Prothero
by P. Willow Cloin

In order to offer a novel twist to this extra credit assignment, I Googled Stephen Prothero, and quickly discovered that a “buzz” has been going on for the better part of a year over his bestseller, Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know – and Doesn’t.* I decided it would be useful to give a short rundown of the media coverage the book has had.

To judge by the media coverage, Stephen Prothero’s book has hit an American nerve. I’m happy to report that, because of this class, I was able to answer all but one of the 15 of the questions on his “Religious Literacy Quiz”. However, to borrow from the song, we Americans “don’t know much about Christianity” or any of the other world religions. His lecture and his interviews and his book all argue that religion is too dangerous and important a subject to allow our children to remain ignorant, especially in light of 9/11 and other religiously motivated events; we should do our best to educate our children about it.

One of the first things Prothero said in his talk was that religion is his favorite subject. One of the last things he admitted to was that he is a “confused Christian.” To round out his personal information, the publisher of his book, Harper Collins (HarperCollins.com) offers a quick bio for Prothero: he is the chair of the religion department at Boston University. His 2003 book, American Jesus, won awards from Publishers Weekly and the Chicago Tribune. He writes and reviews for the New York Times Magazine, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post and other publications. He holds degrees from Harvard and Yale.

Most of the media predictably and gleefully cited funny examples of errors made on Prothero’s “Religious Literacy Quiz”; very few went much further in their reports. One of the best examples of this kind of newspaper coverage was that of USA Today, in “Americans get an ‘F’ in Religion,” by Cathy Lynn Grossman (March 7, 2007); it has the best “cute” examples, but she also reports on the status of schools that are teaching religion; it mentions the work of the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, which is the most active proponent of religious literacy in schools that I located.

Mark Oppenheimer seriously panned Religious Literacy in the prestigious New York Times Sunday Book Review (June 10, 2007). He called the book, Prothero’s “Jeremiad”, and insisted that we’ve all given up on The Bible, so what’s the point? Oppenheimer writes, “Americans have crafted a religiosity that is more an idea of religiosity; together we have largely agreed to forgo its content…religious knowledge is not necessary to be a good citizen. It’s just necessary if one wants to be an educated person.”

Time Magazine’s April 2, 2007, cover humorously depicts a characteristically yellow and black copy of “Cliff’s Notes” for “The Bible” and reads, “Why We Should Teach the Bible in Public School.” David Van Biema’s cover story is a better than average rendering, until its last paragraph, which has an odd, out-of-place ring to it and I think it is a good example of some of the nuttier responses to Prothero’s book. It states:

“And, oh yes, there should be one faith test. Faith in our country. Sure, there will be bumps along the way. But in the end, what is required in teaching about the Bible in our public schools is patriotism: a belief that we live in a nation that understands the wisdom of its Constitution clearly enough to allow the most important book in its history to remain vibrantly accessible for everyone.”

Stephen Prothero underwent numerous interviews with the likes of PBS and the The US News and World Report, and answered the same questions and objections to his proposal repeatedly – would it be constitutional to teach religion in public schools? Who would teach such a class and how do you keep “preaching” out of the classroom? What about the teacher’s bias toward Christianity? He was also had guest spots on the Oprah Show and the Daily Show with Jon Stewart.

I agree with Stephen Prothero and I hope that his work at popularizing this subject will gather enough momentum for change. However, according to Dr. Charles Haynes (Senior Scholar, Freedom Forum First Amendment Center), in a panel discussion on PBS with Prothero, only one public school in Modesto, CA, currently requires a religion class. It would seem that those of us who would support Prothero’s views have our work cut out for us.

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LOVE IS THE VICTORY! – Kamalla Rose Kaur’s Story

 

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Kamalla Rose Kaur

“I’m actually preparing myself to live in environments where I have to do nothing but sit down once in awhile and say a few things. I want to live for the children and their children and their children and I want you to help me and make it possible that I can do that.That can only happen if you stop misbehaving; that’s the condition. You just don’t make sales, don’t make deals right, mess up left, mess up right, then it’s very difficult. You have to come out of this pensive mood, get to a humorous healthy situation, start living healthy, happy, holy, and very consciously. If everything in the family goes on alright, we have to go out in the market, in the other world, the outside world, and teach them kundalini yoga. Do you know you’re the only few people who even can say that you can teach it? You have not valued that blessing. You have not understood that grace. You have not followed the exploit, that bountiful beauty which is with you. That’s very discouraging, isn’t it? I mean, you work the whole winter, and when spring comes only a few trees blossom, do you know what a heartache that is?”

Yogi Bhajan (1987)

As a teenager, 1966-1973, I was part of a mass conversion experience. This was an extremely well-documented event during which thousands of young Westerners embraced Eastern religion. Many of us moved into communes and/or ashrams. Simultaneously, many of us were also studying astrology, mysticism and Western High Magick, and we talked about a New Age coming. Others of us became religious studies professors, anthropologists, sociologists and psychologists, and focused on studying Eastern religions and practices.

During those years, I embraced the teachings of Alan Watts, Ram Das, Timothy Leary, Carlos Castenada, Joseph Campbell, and Yogananda. At age 15, my favorite was Aldous Huxley’s treatise on world religion; “The Perennial Philosophy” which I remain faithful to to this day.

A couple years later, age 18, my first real boyfriend, just 21, became my first husband, and soon we decided to take a yoga class together. It was a Kundalini Yoga class. Suddenly, we were deeply involved in the teachings of Yogi Bhajan and we joined his group, called 3HO (Happy, Healthy Holy Organization), and moved into an ashram.

Sikhi was a very, very small part of Yogi Bhajanism when I joined in 1973. Rather, Yogi Bhajan instructed his students to read Pantajali’s Yoga sutras, and in our ashram, at least, we read Vivekananda’s wonderful little red yoga books. However, I did learn that Sikhs believe the Creator and the Creation are One – Ek Onkar. I heard the story of the creation of the Khalsa Knighthood for the first time and I read the Sikh prayers badly translated to English.

But what I recall most of 1973, was the long periods of fasting, and being on “silence” for most of each day for that year and the next. I “remember” existing on less than 5 hours of sleep a night and doing extremely difficult yoga sets for two or three hours a day, and then teaching yoga classes in the evenings. I remember getting used to wearing all white and a turban out in the “real” world and “working on myself” and trying to “Keep up!” and trying not to “Freak Out!”.

In my case, at least, I was acting. I was trying very hard to be “As Taught By Yogi Bhajan” at all times, but I kept going off-script, thus I was failing from the start.

From Dr. Connie Elsberg’s book “Graceful Women, Gender and Identity in an American Sikh Community”:

“Prabhupati Kaur (my pseudonym used for the book) once described herself as not fitting into the 3HO mold. Grace was not her strong suit. “I have red hair and a temperament to match. My turban was always a bit askew.” When she said that I had an instant image from a book that I loved as a child. It was called “The Littlest Angel” and was about a very young angel with red hair and freckles whose halo was always crooked.In spite of the fact that she never quite fit in, and…in fact, occasionally misbehaved or rebelled when faced with rules and expectations, Prabhupati Kaur now thinks that as a 3HO member she tended to repress her feelings (nature). This tendency to repress aspects of the self, she would argue, takes some of the spark out of 3HO life: ‘You know, it takes lots of energy to deny or ignore parts of the self.’

In retrospect it seemed she spent years trying to accept the discipline of those who sought to shape her behavior.”

By 1975, Yogi Bhajan’s students were being told to hold the Siri Guru Granth Sahib (the Sikh scripture, the SGGS) as our only Teacher, Guide and Guru, yet we kept so busy doing Yogi Bhajan’s various chants, meditations and mind control exercises, selfless seva (service), and hard labor that many of us didn’t read or study the Sikh scripture. English translations of the SGGS are inaccurate and awkward, with sexist language actually added in where it doesn’t exist in the original. Thus the SGGS sounded too Christian and patriarchal to me, so I avoided reading it while I was Yogi Bhajan’s student. I actually believed, in my New Age innocence and stupidity, that Yogi Bhajan was the redeemer of the Sikh Way and that Sikhs of Punjabi descent would get the True Message soon.

Khalsa Women’s Training Camp was created to teach Yogi Bhajan’s women students to become a strong part of the Khalsa, and stand as equals with Sikh men. 3HO women were encouraged to be publically powerful teachers, healers, business women and speakers. Yet, it just wasn’t “graceful” to disagree with your husband, and we didn’t even think about disagreeing with our spiritual teacher, who was Yogi Bhajan, not the Sikh Guru.

I think most of us believed that Yogi Bhajan was Guru Gobind Singh reincarnated.

For 10 years, I represented Kundalini Yoga, as taught by Yogi Bhajan, in Silicon Valley, California. This was during the booming 1980s. I honestly had no notion while in Yogi Bhajan’s group that the Sikh Guru Granth preaches against Kundalini Yoga, yet Yogi Bhajan was not ignorant. He knew he was disobeying the teachings of the Sikh Guru and in one of his more truthful moments he confessed:

“…my idea to teach you Kundalini Yoga was a personal risk. Kundalini Yoga has never been taught as we do. I broke the rule. I had read the scriptures and it is prohibited. When I came, I talked to myself and then I said, “Okay, what is the risk? Let us do it. If I die within one year… and blah, blah, blah, whole thing… it matters nothing. When I came in this country I was not Mahan Tantric. I didn’t have any power. And I didn’t lie.”

Yogi Bhajan


Believe Nobody, But Trust God, 6/22/89 (
www.sikhnet.com)

It wasn’t until I entered San Jose State University, at age 30, that I began to understand that I wasn’t really a Sikh. I was practicing Californian-style New Age-ism. I had become an excellent astrologer down through my 20 years of association with Yogi Bhajanism. I knew all about color therapy, crystals, foot reflexology, past-life regressions and extreme forms of water therapy – specifically cold showers at 3:30am each and every day.

Shamefully, I had taught all of this as part and parcel of the Sikh religion, grossly misinforming California audiences, for many years.

My religious studies professors thought poorly of the ignorant messing with the doctrines of major world religions, so they confronted my New Agey ways. They encouraged me to read the Sikh Guru and study what others had to say.

I need to note here that within Sikh history and lore, there are famous lost souls who conveniently tried to change a mere word or two of the Guru Granth for political and/or egotistical reasons. They are Judas-type figures within Sikhi.

Here is what the Sikh Guru told me about Yogi Bhajanism:

“They read and contemplate scriptures, they practice the inner cleansing techniques of yoga, and control of the breath. But they cannot escape from the company of the five passions (lust, rage, greed, pride and attachment). They are increasingly bound to egotism.

This is not the way to meet the Supreme One and Only. I have performed these rituals so many times. Finally I collapsed, exhausted, at the door of my Creator and I prayed to the Beloved One, ‘Please, grant me a discerning intellect'”.

Siri Guru Granth Sahib, page 642

2. Now THAT Was An Interesting Experiment!

After leaving Yogi Bhajan’s group, many ex-3HO women turned to our husbands and said, “Now THAT was an interesting experiment!”

Divorce was common. However, two friends, who I will call, Sally and Sky, managed to stick together and heal. But it was not easy. Sally and Sky had been married by Yogi Bhajan himself in the early 1970s and they had raised their three children in Yogi Bhajan ashrams.

“By the time we finally left Yogi Bhajan and 3HO in the early 1990s, I was going through Men -O- PAUSE” Sally shares. “It all seemed to come down to the issue of tea for me. How many cups of tea had I served Sky over the years? And how few times (even during my moontime!) had Sky thought to make a cup of tea for me? Hmmmmmm?”

It wasn’t right. Sally knew a change needed to happen and she decided that a toll needed to be paid. She prayed and meditated and decided that if her husband was willing to go on a 40-day, 3HO-style sadhana (regime), and be her servant, nay even her Zombie Love Slave for that period, that she would feel EVEN, free of resentment.

“40 days!” Sky yelped.

This was not a good response, given that “HOW MANY YEARS DID I SERVE YOU?????” was hanging in the air.

So Sky agreed (what could he do?) but he decided to wait 40 days before starting the program.

“That was a big mistake.” Sky tells me, “I had 40 days to think about all the ways my wife had made herself a slave to me while in Yogi Bhajan’s group. I had 40 days to wait for my well-deserved punishment. It wasn’t pretty.”

Sky loves his wife and he understood that a mere 40 days of being her chela was getting off easy for all those years of her devoted service. He was determined to be the best student/soldier/devotee he had ever been for Sally. His pride depended on it. He wanted to be a feminist.

The morning of the first day of Sky’s slavery dawned, and after their morning meditation Sally gave Sky his first order.

“Today I want you to go write down a list of the things you still want to do before you die. Get your own food and wash your own dishes and clean something extra as well, I do not care what.”

In the evening, Sally took the list that Sky had sweat blood over all day, and she set it aside.

“Now let us talk about sex.” she began. “Do not do anything until I order you to, understand?”

The next day, Sky, devoted chela, was told to pick something on the list and accomplish it. He was to check in daily with progress reports and he was required to wash some dishes, do some laundry and clean something each day.

That was it. But in the evenings, she ordered him around for hours.

“After 40 days of being my wife’s servant, I was so humbled and ashamed of men in 3HO and men everywhere. I was very happy. My wife gave up being the boss easily enough after 40 days, but I remain her eternal and devoted love slave.”
3. Ten Years Later – Becoming a Sikh

In fall 2000, age 45, I posted my first article about Sikhi to a Sikh internet forum. I left the Yogi Bhajan (YB) cult a decade before, under threat, after I unwittingly stumbled across a great deal of evidence about the criminal activities of Yogi Bhajan’s inner circle. By the year 2000, I had joined with other ex-Bhajanites to get that evidence published on the internet.
www.rickross.com/groups/3ho.html

http://yogibhajan.tripod.com/2/

http://forums.delphiforums.com/KamallaRose/start

Knowing I had been mistaught while a member of YB’s group, I sought editorial help with an article about the differences between Yogi Bhajanism and Sikhi, which I planned to publish on an anti-cult website. After studying the names of the various Sikh e-groups, I decided to post at one called “Sikh Youth”. I was looking for an informed Sikh Mom, or maybe an elementary school teacher, to answer my questions and tutor me. Or maybe the Sikh children could help me. But Nanak had different plans for me. I posted my article and suddenly I found myself surrounded by Sikh males, no women in sight, and they ripped my article to shreds.

“Oops!” I thought. “I seem to have crashed into some sort of teenage pro-Khalistan gang forum!”

I was a mother with grown children and I was not afraid of a bunch of rude punk kids. And being a writer, and wishing to be a journalist, I could smell a story. I kept posting.

Those Sikh youth weren’t polite, but they were knowledgeable. My article talked about how Sikhs revere Baba Siri Chand, and I called Sikhi “Sikh Dharma”, I assumed everyone did. Still, something wasn’t right. I couldn’t believe that Sikh teens were so different from teens I knew from other cultures. They were so serious and intense and sexist. So I asked them about this and finally it came out that the Sikh “youth” who were posting on that forum were in their 30’s and older and I was crashing their Sikh men’s club.

I should have just excused myself and left, but by then I was hooked on Sikhi. I was intent on figuring out what True Sikhi taught as distinct from what Yogi Bhajan had taught. I was going through a delayed conversion experience as I suddenly found, to my surprise and at times horror, that I had extremely passionate opinions about Sikhi. Meanwhile I was shocked at how I was being treated by Sikh men out on the internet. I fought back by wrting a Sikh women’s liberation sermon. I called it “Prem Ki Jit!” which means “Love is the Victory!” or “Let Love Win!”. My article quickly published all over the world. I was flooded with fan mail.
4. Prem Ki Jit! Love is the Victory!

As far as I can see, Sikhi is the only major religion in this world that is universalist, non-sexist, not-racist, anti-caste and class, and set up, by Guru Gobind Singh (who installed the Guru Granth as the only Sikh guide and Guru) to be non-authoritarian, meaning it is an anti-cult movement as well. Guru Nanak, through Guru Gobind Singh, fought against Baboon Troop social dynamics (authoritarian hierarchies) way back in a time and place where this was still hopeless. Yet, because of them, women do NOT sit in the back of Sikhi.

Meanwhile, I was raised in a Protestant Christian culture where the basic dogma IS highly sexist, exclusive, non-universalist, etc. Yet, Protestant Christians are way ahead of every other religion in empowering women into equal authority with their men. Paradoxically, at the level of core belief, women in the West are constantly fighting Eve’s battle yet Christianity is the best choice for women in a practical sense. We can speak from the pulpit within Christianity.

Of course, throughout the ages women are generally more religious than men. Women pray and meditate more, attend temples and churches more, do more seva, and we keep the charities going. Women are far less likely to misuse power when we attain it, far less likely to sell our souls for sex, $tuff and/or power. We have, worldwide, better statistics when it comes to resisting the urge to murder and rape and every other criminal activity. Women start fewer wars.

This is not to say that women are better than men in all areas, but in the area of ethics, the data is clear and profound. And the reason for this has to do with Baboon Troop mentality as much as anything else. Men, to be good men, need to give up the urge to be Alpha Male, King of the Castle, Guru and CEO. Women, in order to help our planet, to help Sikhi, help ourselves and our children, and men, need to give up the idea that we NEED men and that we are in competition with other women for men’s attention.

This is distinct from whether women WANT men – we do – or rather most of us want our ONE man. Yet we want men, fathers, brothers, husbands, uncles, nephews, and sons who are “good guys”, men who disband the authoritarian hierarchies, for the sake of Sikhi and the planet.

Sikhi is on a world stage now, and it is embarrassing to say that Sikhi is a universalist, non-sexist, not-racist, anti-cult, anti-caste and anti-class movement when the truth is that Sikhi looks like a regional, traditional sect from the Punjab, India – prone to cults, stuck with arranged marriages (the ultimate caste/class game), sexist and with a tendency to sound mighty racist quite a lot of the time.

Sikhi needs a unifying, pro-active cause, something we can all get behind and work together on. We need something to show this world (that has forgotten our incredible history and ignores our present persecution) how amazing Sikhs are!

And what better cause than Sikhi itself? What better way to share our tradition and our strength and our huge capacity to fight for the right, than to declare that Sikhi is a universalist, non-sexist, non-racist, anti-cult, anti-caste and class, religion, and then PROVE it?

The world doesn’t believe anything like this is possible. To go quickly from a traditional male-dominated, superstitious, authoritarian Baboon Troop society, to being the kind of culture Guru Nanak was dreaming of. To transform into being the kind of religion that women can feel excited, supported, empowered and happy to join. To be the kind of movement that teaches that change and transformation are possible. To have Sikhi suddenly show its stuff and take its place as a major world religion and force.

My Western friends think I’m totally crazy and most of the Sikh men I deal with have a “there, there, child” tone in their responses to me. But to quote a very famous and beloved Western visionary, “You may say I’m a dreamer, but I’m not the only one…”.

Sikhi has a tradition of doing amazing acts of righteousness. Only Sikhi has the Sikh tradition. Who else but Sikhs can teach the lesson that only Sikhi teaches? Mind you, I am not interested in converting the world to Sikhi. That is NOT what is important at all. Yet this planet desperately needs Sikhi. This planet needs Sikhs to do what Sikhs do best – for the glory of universalism and the love of the human potential, more than for the glory of Sikhs and Sikhi.

Only Sikhs have ever run into battle screaming PREM KI JIT! Before materialism and Baboon Bosses succeed in conquering Sikhi and the planet, and destroying good, simply for their own ego-gratification, why not fight?

Prem Ki Jit ! Love is the victory!

5. The Carrie Nation of the Sikhs

I often send prayers of thanks for the unnamed Silicon Valley heroes who launched the internet because, among other great results, the internet has helped to save Sikh spirituality and culture. I admire how Sikhs practice town-hall meeting debates and discussions on the internet. Drastically opposing views volley around freely, and tempers rise, but generally speaking, Sikh men devolve into personal attack less than I expect them to. This is especially impressive, given that the Sikh religion often appears to be undergoing their period of Great Schism.

Having crashed one all-Sikh, all-male internet discussion forum, I quickly crashed many. Initially, this was because my article was posted from site to site, and also because Sikh forum moderators, eager to increase readership, often sign you up for their e-groups without first gaining your permission.

That said, my personal motivations for invading male-dominated Sikh internet groups were many and mixed. First and foremost, I was eager to learn about Sikhi and the Sikh forums were a vast interactive classroom where I could observe Sikh debates, ask questions and receive a variety of learned responses.

I was also eager to meet Sikh women. I was sure that there had to be at least one Sikh forum where Sikh women felt comfortable posting, and I was determined to find it. Of course, there was the intoxicating lure of a “great story” and finally getting “published” and becoming a “real writer”. Ultimately, I felt that the Sikh Guru had dropped me into a challenging opportunity to finally become an emancipated woman. I disappearred into Yogi Bhajan’s group in 1973 at age 18, and stayed there for 20 years. Thus I had missed much of the USA women’s movement. Suddenly, age 45, I was receiving training and education from Sikh patriarchs who were consciously, and unconsciously, complete sexists. Younger Sikhs, especially those born in the West, are far less sexist but they are too busy with their careers and families to spend hours each day involved in internet religious and political debates.

Soon I accepted that I needed to train the elder Khalsa Panth in basic cross-cultural manners and media awareness. I reminded Sikh men to talk to me directly rather than in the third person. I instructed Sikh men not to ignore me or shun me completely. I insisted that my name be spelt the way I spell it, rather than the way they would spell my name, which is “Kam’la”, and I did not accept being called diminuatives, like “Bibi” (Sister), from strangers, especially when these men weren’t adding affectionate titles to each other’s names. I even went so far as to state that I would prefer to be called “Bhai” or Brother Kamalla Rose Kaur, because “Bhais” have more clout than “Bibis” in Punjabi culture; just like being a “Master” is better than being a “Mistress” in the West.

By the start of 2001, my writings were controversial and popular enough for me to get picked up by Global Sikh Daily News @ Sikhe.Com as their first staff writer. During the three years I wrote for them, we became the most popular Sikh website and newspaper going. My fellow columnists were Anju Kaur, Patwant Singh, I. J. Singh, and Harbans Lal, among others.

6. Sexism and Sikhi

The truth is, as a whole, Sikhs and Sikhi are extremely macho. Back in the time of the living Sikh Gurus, sexism was a cultural absolute. Women had no power at all, and they were judged to be good women or bad women by how well they could surrender to, and serve, the men around them, particularly their husbands. At the level that women could exercise some mundane power within their households, having sons and eventually becoming the “mother-in-law” was as good as it got. In spite of this, there are many heroines in Sikh history – women who fought battles, ran everything, were martyred, took part in ceremonies and taught Sikhi.

From the beginning, the Sikh Gurus took a stand against both sati and the veiling of women, and they wrote hymns to their sisters, taking the voice of the “soulbride”. The Sikh Guru reminds Sikh women that God is our REAL husband, not that strange human male we are happily or unhappily, married to. Christian women may only access God through their husbands if you believe that St. Paul is canon. The Sikh Guru teaches otherwise:
“Come, my dear sisters, my spiritual companions; hug me close in your embrace. Let’s join together, and tell stories of our all-powerful Divine Husband. All virtues are in our TRUE Master”

Guru Nanak page 17

Men are soulbrides too.

I have asked many Sikh men over the years if the Sikh religion is sexist and every time Sikh men have told me, “No! Women have equal rights and status in the Sikh religion.”I admit it gives me joy to hear macho Khalsa men assert that Sikhi isn’t sexist. It also makes me grateful that I am married to Ken, my brilliant, and genuinely feminist, non-Sikh husband.

When “Romantic Mists” published, l was again flooded with fan mail. It is a true story, about a real walk, and an actual conversation with my husband, but it reads like a Sikh “Guideposts Magazine” tale. Many wrote, “I have sent this article to everyone in my office!”
7. Romantic Mists

What do I like best about the Sikh religion, better than the other world religions?” My husband Ken repeated my question back to me while we were out taking a walk around a pretty lake.”I like that Sikhi doesn’t actively promote harmful practices.”

“What?” I asked in surprise.

“Sikhs don’t out and out advocate abusive practices like celibacy, caste, circumcision, sati, authoritarianism, sexism and racism. This is unique, the other religions do.”

“You are right” I mused, much struck, “that is tremendously inspiring.”

Yet, realistically speaking, I knew that Ken figures Sikhs to be about 150 years away from establishing gender equality, doing away with the Hindu caste system completely and accepting multiculturalism into their midst as a good thing. Right now, Sikhs seem pretty separatist in the West, deep in the throes of culture shock. I know Ken wonders why I bother to expect Sikhs to be able to drop their own internal concerns enough to become leaders on the modern world stage.

Joggers were out and a few people were walking their dogs. Cedar trees, soft-barked and fragrant, with their branches reaching downwards, seemed to me to be dancing in the forest, partnered by the extremely rough-barked Douglas Fir trees, which are ever so tall, their branches lifted upwards. The lake was slate blue with dark green shadows and the mists on the lake were just thick enough to make visibility of the other side difficult.

“Sikhs have done amazing and surprising transformational acts in their history. It could happen again” I reminded Ken as we rested for a spell on a bench to study the beautiful fog on the dark lake. Then I sighed in frustration and added, “But so far, all I’ve experienced is Sikh men out in public forums declaring that the Sikh religion isn’t sexist or racist, but obviously these Sikh warriors are not declaring any such thing in their own Gurdwaras. Wouldn’t it be exciting if they did?”

“Yes, it would be,” Ken laughed, “and you are romantic beyond belief!”

“I think that is why I always come back to Sikhi.” I admitted with a shrug, “I keep expecting great Khalsa Knights to arrive and do something dashing just because it is the right thing to do.”

Just then, a chilly breeze swept over the lake and we shivered as the mists began to swirl. Soon the fog was blown away completely and we saw the dark green forests across the lake clearly and our eyes lifted to the wooded mountains beyond that shore. They were dusted on top with snow.

“That is the other thing I like about the Sikh religion,” Ken responded after a while, “It inspires people.”

“But you will believe it when you see it, right?”

Right then, across the lake, a flock of Canadian Geese lifted off the waters and flew into the sky in their V formation, honking encouragement to one another.

“Yes, I will” Ken promised easily.

8. My Cross-Cultural Clown Act

Participation in present-day Sikhi is tremendously difficult for non-Punjabi converts. Sikh gurdwaras are male-dominated. English and other local languages are not spoken, and Sikhs of Punjabi descent do not seem to know how to run their PA systems. There are simply too many male voices broadcasting Punjabi too loudly for Ken and I to feel comfortable, much less meditative and devotional, while visiting most Sikh Gurdwaras.

Thanks to the internet, I have become a Sikh preacher, comedian, and possibly even a Sikh fundamentalist. Mind you, Sikhs don’t proselytize, except to other Sikhs. And Sikhs don’t have “priests” much less “high priests”, but then again, that isn’t true either. Sikhs are tolerant of other faiths and embracing of multiculturalism, but actually Sikhs are separatists. The truth is most Sikhs aren’t really Sikhs at all. They bow to their Holy Book and throw money at it, and claim it as their only master, but they haven’t read it, much less tried to follow its teachings.

To date, I have been invited to attend only one Sikh Conference, a roundtable discussion, in California in 2000. I was the only woman invited there, surrounded by highly respected and terribly well-educated Sikh men – most of them over 60. I wrote about this experience in my one my weekly Sikh newspaper columns:
9. A Change of Mind, Sort Of…

I wish I had a video of what happened when I questioned the longevity of the idea of “arranged marriages” within Sikhi.Whoa back! Those men went off like rockets. They defended arranged marriages, of all things, loudly and all at once! What the???

“Your divorce rate is 50% and ours is only 2%!”

“No fair!” I countered, “Allow Sikh women to gracefully divorce and then we can see how many Sikh women go for it!”

Oooops. This was NOT great diplomacy on my part.

Yet, out of the explosion of sound that followed, slowly a few wise paternal voices reached out to me, across the yelling. These men were speaking about the process of helping their daughters find the right mate, about there being something precious here – something I know nothing about having been raised in a totally different culture.

I listened, I really did, and I sensed that there was a story of love being transmitted to me and I decided to pull back and not decide so quickly.
However, this isn’t easy. My whole European culture took a big stand against arranged marriages once upon a time, long, long ago. When the Great Knight Tristan refused to let the Catholics put the fear of eternal damnation into him, he chose to love Isolte in the face of hell’s fire and being burnt at the stake. Way back then, many moons ago now, Westerners fought for “romantic love” and against arranged marriages, and we lived through the Christian Inquisition holding onto our right to love freely.
So frankly, I can never forget that arranged marriages are the very mechanisms of all class and caste systems and they are a way to promote racism and cultural in-breeding. Also, they are a way to control young women.

But truly, I tried to back off and reconsider, to really listen to what these wise Sikh Papas were trying to tell me.

Yet I failed. When I heard one of these men speak about considering the “status” of a good suitor for his daughter, I was the one who went off like a rocket!

“There is no reason to arrange a marriage for your daughter other than to ‘marry UP’!” I exclaimed, “That is the way caste works!”

I am right too. Caste and class systems need arranged marriages. Just try to convince a Westerner like myself that Sikh women REALLY need any help from Papa, and other family members, in following their hearts and finding their beloveds! Absurd notion, totally ridiculous! Get out of God’s way and let Divine Nature lead.

“It is inevitable that in a generation or two, Sikh women will choose mates for themselves.” I added for ‘good’ measure, “They will not wish to be protected or controlled anymore!”

Again, a diplomat I’m not!
In the end I completely changed my heart, although I still have all the same opinions. And trust me, I am grateful my parents didn’t have much say in my love life!

Yet what I was shown was a possibility for having a sense of family and community and support that is truly helpful to single people. This revelation happened in a wonderful way. One of the Sikh elders, a radiant sweetheart of a retired judge from the Punjab now living in the USA, made me smile and laugh a lot during the days of that conference. In a private conversation one afternoon, this Sikh man took a fatherly tone with me and I replied, “Now Papaji, you know I respect what you are saying but…”

“You called me Papaji!” he exclaimed, and then he adopted me. I now have a Sikh Papaji who brags and laughs and he glows when he presents me to all his friends.

And I must admit, if I weren’t already extremely happily married to my husband Ken, Papaji would probably be the first person I would trust in setting me up with an interesting date or two!

10. The Sikh Women’s Movement

In the last few years, Western Sikh women writers are publishing articles, and unlike Sikh men, who are constantly arguing about Guru Gobind Singh’s writings or engaged in the hair debate, Sikh women writers are in perfect agreement:

“Sikh women have been denied equal rights for a long time, even at Darbar Sahib. I would have found it unimaginable if I hadn’t experienced this discrimination first hand”.

Anju Kaur “Rude Awakening”

“Our Gurus did their utmost to make Sikh women equal partners. Guru Amar Das Ji sent out Sikh women to spread Sikhi. Alas, we have lost trace of those women. The worst situation now is that some of the Sikh women have lost their right to accept Will of the Creator when they are forced to abort female fetuses. The Sikh women need to come forward and express themselves as they did in our Guru’s days and become mentors to the Global women.”

Satnam Kaur, politician, London UK

“It’s awful to think that just because women raised a voice for their equality, when they were liberated by Guru Nanak Dev Ji many hundreds of years ago, our Singh brothers in power think they know better. The leaders of the Khalsa Panth are more ready to argue with their sisters and brothers, than to implement the teachings of our Gurus. They are more concerned about power and politics than they are about the Panth. It’s a shame.”


Dalveer Kaur “In Search of a Role”

“My faith represents a number of things for me personally. Primarily, there is the implicit gender equality and independence for women – I have never really had to think of my beliefs as a religion but rather a way of life practised every day and incorporated in day-to-day living, not separate from myself and something which I do just on Sunday´s or special days.”

Indie Lall, journalist

Suddenly, in February of 2003, two British Sikh women, Mejindarpal Kaur and Lakhbir Kaur, made Sikh women’s liberation history by jumping in to assist carrying the Siri Guru Granth to its nightly resting place at Darbar Sahib (the Golden Temple, central Gurdwara of the Sikh faith, located in Amritsar, India).

“Gender discrimination came to the fore when two England-based Sikh women were allegedly ‘assaulted and insulted’ by S.G.P.C. sevadars during sukhasan (ceremony of carrying Guru Granth Sahib in a palanquin) at the Golden Temple…Bibi Mejindarpal Kaur said that she had never experienced such a rude behaviour. She alleged that when she along with Bibi Lakhbir Kaur tried to touch the palki, they were pushed back and the S.G.P.C. employees shouted that women were not allowed to perform this seva…Meanwhile, Bibi Kiranjot Kaur, former general secretary, S.G.P.C., has condemned the incident and urged the Sikh clergy to ensure that there should not be any gender discrimination in the Golden Temple as gender discrimination is against the tenets of Sikhism.”

The Tribune, Amritsar, Feb. 15, 2003

It is now years later, and Sikh women are still denied the right to sing and serve at Darbar Sahib. I wrote at the time:

“Remember, Creator/Creation gave us all human rights. Humans may, by the exercise of power, prevent people from exercising those rights, but they cannot take them away. Social change happens as fast as corrupt people can be educated or replaced. If a society decides to accomplish something, people in power can be replaced very quickly.Reform can happen very quickly. The Beloved One is full of miracles when we are doing the Siri Guru’s seva. Meanwhile in women’s studies departments and religious studies programs of universities, scholars are reading over our shoulders and starting to study the grand history of the Sikh Women’s Movement.Because Khalsa women are inspiring – they always have been.”

11. Being a Sikh

Yogi Bhajan used to challenge his students to “fake it to make it!” The Sikh Guru teaches the opposite. You can’t fake being a Sikh.
The word “Sikh” simply means “student” and it is by taking the Sikh Guru Granth as your teacher, and obeying Guruji’s guidance that you become a true Sikh. When you read the Siri Guru Granth Sahib, you encounter Nanak. You will read the actual poems written by Nanak, and through these writings, Guruji teaches anyone interested how to be a Sikh.

Again, Sikhi is set up very simply. The way you become a Sikh is through Guruji, and you are not Khalsa if you break the Khalsa vows no matter what you claim.
12. Culture Is Maya

European and USA cultures are mostly maya. Maya is the world that we humans create and get all wrapped up in and attached to. The stock market is maya, and so is money, and fame and status and media; actually, most of what we call civilization is maya. Maya is made up of all those things we can’t take with us.

Punjabi culture is mostly maya. Punjabi culture has many wonderful customs with great food and art and much beauty. Western culture also has produced some good writers, musicians, and painters and some excellent food.

Still, human social constructs everywhere are considered by the Sikh Guru to be maya (illusionary).

By reading the Siri Guru Granth and by attempting to integrate the Sikh Guru’s instructions into my USA lifestyle, I am slowly able to rise above and live detached from the maya of my culture. Day by day, Guruji questions my basic motivations and training and asks me to try a new and different approach.

Historically, the Sikh Gurus taught Hindus and Muslims how to transcend the maya of their cultures (the false beliefs and fantasies and egotisms). In these modern times, the Sikh Guru is still at it. At the level that Punjabi culture is supportive of caste, racism and sexism, the Sri Guru is training Punjabis to be Sikhs. Nothing has changed. Maya remains maya, and it is only by the Grace of the teachings of the Sikh Guru (and other teachers of universal truth) that any of us can break free of worldly illusions and the falsehoods and sins of popular culture.

Ready or not, the Sikh Guru challenges each of us to be much better, far more inspiring, than we actually are.

It is only by Grace that people from India can suddenly drop caste, or racism, or sexism. It is only by Grace that someone born and raised in the USA can drop class-ism, and racism and sexism and materialism – different cultures, same maya.

The Sikh religion challenges us all to love and celebrate the finer sides of our cultures and backgrounds, but we are to live as Sikhs. It was a miracle when Guru Gobind Singh inspired a bunch of frightened and oppressed people of the Punjab to rise up and fight the maya of their fear and superstitions, and to stand strong for the human rights of all beings. It will take the same sort of miracles for Guru Gobind Singh to inspire Punjabis and people from other cultures, to do it again and again!

The Sri Guru teaches that we must study daily and comprehend and act on universal and true teachings. We must surrender our egos to Creator/Creation, and give our lives to the glory of the Beloved One. We are instructed to sing praise, invoke the Naam (Name of God) and become aware that the Supreme Being is witnessing our lives and we humans are witnessing the Creator/Creation as well.

“The Beloved One created the world with many colors, species of beings, and the endless variety of maya. Having created the creation, the Beloved watches over it. Creator/Creation does whatever Creator/Creation pleases. No one can issue any order to God.The Creator is the Sovereign of Sovereigns, the Supreme One and Only, our only real Master.
Nanak remains subject to God’s Will only.”


Sri Guru Granth Sahib, page 9

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